Fracture Models
Fracture healing is a complex physiological process where the bone and its neighboring tissues play important roles. Thus, fracture healing can only be assessed in animal models.
However, the choice of the most appropriate animal model for fracture repair remains an unanswered question as no animal model accurately reproduces the human bone physiology, biology, structure, and biomechanics.

Despite these limitations, small and large animal models have been developed to study the effects of bone substitutes, scaffold, biologics or cell-based products on bone fracture repair.

Fracture bone healing is usually an optimal biological process. However, delayed healing or non-union can occur on patients for multiple reasons. In addition, bone fractures are more frequent and more problematic in osteoporotic patients as the bone structure is compromised. Fracture model, segmental and critical-size defect models have been developed in several species.

Animal Models

Critical-size defects:
  • Calvarias critical-size defects in rat and rabbit
  • Mandibular critical-size defects in mini-pig and dog
  • Femur critical-size defects in rat
  • Ulna critical-size defects in rabbit
  • Tibial critical-size defects in sheep and mini-pig


Outcome Measurements

  • In vivo and ex vivo BMD and BMC measurements of cortical and trabecular

    bones by DEXA, pQCT and ?CT

  • Biomechanical testing

  • Physiological bone turnover markers (blood, urine)

  • Ash chemical analysis

  • Histomorphometry, histology

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