Spine Models

Validated small and large animal models are available to study spinal fusion at the cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels using anterior or posterior approaches.


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    CT scan view of dog PLF model 4 weeks post surgery (right bone volume calculation)



  • Rabbit
  • Rat
  • Dog
  • Goat and sheep
  • Pig
  • Primate

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     View of dog PLF model 12 weeks post surgery (left: Micro CT, right: Faxitron)



Types of Models


Procedures are usually performed on one level but multilevel fusions are also possible:

  • Anterior Cervical Fusion
  • Anterior Cervical Discectomy (sheep, goat)
  • Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion PLF (rat, rabbit, dog, sheep, pig, primate)
  • Posterior Thoracic Fusion (rat)
  • Posterolateral Interbody Fusion (dog, sheep)


Outcome Measurements

  • Radiography: Intervertebral Angle
  • CT and Micro CT (fusion status and bone volume)
  • High-Resolution X-Rays (Faxitron)
  • Non-Invasive Biomechanical Testing
  • DXA: Bone Mineral Density
  • Histology and Histomorphometry: Bone Quality


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       PMMA histology on a dog PLF model (upper picture) and a rabbit PLF model.

To read more about Spine Models, Click Here 

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