Spine models

Validated small and large animal models are available to study spinal fusion at the cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels using anterior or posterior approaches.

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CT scan view of dog PLF model 4 weeks post surgery (right bone volume calculation)

Species Available:

  • Rabbits
  • Rats
  • Dogs
  • Goats and sheep
  • Pigs
  • Primates

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View of dog PLF model 12 weeks post surgery ( left :Micro CT, Right : Faxitron)


Types of Models:


Procedures are usually performed on one level but multilevel fusions are also possible:


  • Anterior cervical fusion
  • Anterior cervical discectomy (sheep, goats)
  • Posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) (rats, rabbits, dogs, sheep, pigs, primates)
  • Posterior thoracic fusion (rats)
  • Posterolateral interbody fusion (dogs, sheep)


Outcome Measures:


The fusion success can be assessed following established procedures:


  • Radiography: intervertebral angle
  • CT and Micro CT (fusion status and bone volume)
  • High Resolution X-Rays ( Faxitron)
  • Non invasive biomechanical testing
  • DXA: bone mineral density
  • Histology and histomorphometry: bone quality

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Figure : PMMA histology on a dog PLF model (upper picture) and a rabbit PLF model.

To read more about Spine Models, Click Here 

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