Spine models
Validated small and large animal models are available to study spinal fusion at the cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels using anterior or posterior approaches.








CT scan view of dog PLF model 4 weeks post surgery (right bone volume calculation)




Species Available:
  • Rabbits
  • Rats
  • Dogs
  • Goats and sheep
  • Pigs
  • Primates





View of dog PLF model 12 weeks post surgery ( left :Micro CT, Right : Faxitron)



Types of Models:
Procedures are usually performed on one level but multilevel fusions are also possible:
  • Anterior cervical fusion
  • Anterior cervical discectomy (sheep, goats)
  • Posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) (rats, rabbits, dogs, sheep, pigs, primates)
  • Posterior thoracic fusion (rats)
  • Posterolateral interbody fusion (dogs, sheep)
Outcome Measures:
The fusion success can be assessed following established procedures:
  • Radiography: intervertebral angle
  • CT and Micro CT (fusion status and bone volume)
  • High Resolution X-Rays ( Faxitron)
  • Non invasive biomechanical testing
  • DXA: bone mineral density
  • Histology and histomorphometry: bone quality





Figure : PMMA histology on a dog PLF model (upper picture) and a rabbit PLF model.


To read more about Spine Models, Click Here 

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